Robert M. Sigmond

In the 1950s, Sigmond began advocating for community participation in healthcare, a concept he would push until, eventually, sweeping mandates were instituted in the 1970s. Sigmond’s focus was always on the patient, and it would frustrate him that administrators during the time would “concern themselves with the problems of the medical staff, the hospital building—it was never about the people,” he once said. After working as a statistician in Philadelphia with the Governor’s Commission on Hospital Facilities, Standards and Organization, he would meet fellow [AHA] Hall-of-Famer C. Rufus Rorem at the Hospital Council of Philadelphia. Rorem would become Sigmond’s mentor, and the two would go on to collaborate on establishing the Blue Cross plans. During Sigmond’s career, he would also become director of fiscal studies at Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia, serve as a longtime adviser to the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association and work as a consultant to the American Hospital Association. (Source:

M.A.  The Pennsylvania State College, 1942

B.A.  The Pennsylvania State College, 1941

Philadelphia Public Schools

Senior Advisor to the Dean, School of Public Health, Drexel University Health Sciences, 2001

1977-1996: Advisor on Hospital Affairs, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, Chicago, IL

1981-1985: Director, Community Programs for Affordable Health Care, Chicago, IL

1976-1977: Consultant, Blue Cross Association and Blue Cross of Greater Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

1971-1975: Executive Vice President, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA

1968-1970: Executive Vice President for Planning, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA

1964-1968: Executive Director, Hospital Planning Association of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA

1955-1964: Executive Director, Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA

1950-1955: Assistant to the Executive Vice President and Medical Director, Albert Einstein Medical Center
(also Assistant Director and Acting Director of the Center’s Northern Division), Philadelphia, PA

1952-1954: Director of Fiscal Studies, National Commission on Financing of Hospital Care, Chicago, Illinois
(on leave of absence from the Einstein Medical Center)

1946-1950: Research Associate, Hospital Council of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

1945-1946: Research Associate, Governor’s Commission on Hospital Facilities, Standards, and Organizations, Philadelphia, PA

1942-1945: Various civilian wartime assignments (not in the health field) with the U.S. Air Forces, the War Department, and the War Labor Board, (Civilian Award of Merit, U.S. Air Forces, 1943)

Scholar in Residence, Department of Health Administration, School of Business Administration,
Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 1985-.

Adjunct Professor, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, 1989-1994.

Adjunct Professor of Health Administration, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 1968-1976.

Adjunct Professor, Medical and Hospital Administration, The Graduate School of Public Health,
University of Pittsburgh, 1955-1968.

Editorial Board, Inquiry Member

Member, Research Advisory Council, Coalition for Nonprofit Health Care, Washington, D.C.

Consultant, Hospital Involvement in Community Action Study, School of Public Health University of Toronto

Chairman, National Advisory Committee, Hospital Community Benefit Standards Project, New York Univ., New York, N.Y.

Trustee, Mercy Health Corporation of Southeastern Pennsylvania, Bala Cynwyd, PA.

Director and member of Executive Committee, Holy Redeemer Hospital and Medical Center,
Meadowbrook, PA.

Trustee, Sisters of Mercy Health Corporation, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

Trustee, Dorothy Rider Pool Health Care Trust, Allentown, PA.

Senior Program Consultant, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Consultant, Committee on Community Health Care of the Council on Medical Services,
American Medical Association.

Consultant, Social Security Administration.

Consultant, Pennsylvania Governor’s Hospital Study Commission.

Consultant, HEW Secretary’s Committee on Hospital Effectiveness.

Consultant, National Center for Health Services Research.

Consultant, USPHS.

Consultant, Office of Economic Opportunity.

Consultant, Pittsburgh Foundation.

Consultant, University of Michigan Study of Hospital and Medical Economics.

Consultant, Hospital Utilization Research Project, California State Department of Health.

Consultant, Pennsylvania Department of Health Task Force on Pennsylvania Blue Shield Regulation.

Expert, Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, DHHS.

Editorial Board
, Journal of the American Public Health Association.

Editorial Board, Health Services Research.

Editorial Board, Medical Care.

Technical Board, Milbank Memorial Fund.

Chairman, National Advisory Committee of the Johnson Foundation-Sponsored
Community Hospital-Medical Staff Group Practice Program.

Chairman, Hospital Advisory Committee, Hospital Research and Education Trust of the
American Hospital Association.

Chairman, Council on Research and Development of the American Hospital Association.

Chairman, Committee on Areawide Planning Agencies, American Hospital Association.

Chairman, Council on Administrative Practice, Hospital Association of Pennsylvania.

Chairman, Health Facilities Review and Study Committee of the Regional Comprehensive
Health Planning Council, Philadelphia, PA.

Chairman, Goals and Priorities Committee and Member, Board of Directors of the Philadelphia
Health Management Corporation.

Vice Chairman, South Philadelphia Health Action.

Secretary-Treasurer and Member, Board of Directors, American Association for Hospital Planning.

Member, Nonprofit Contributions Advisory Board, City of Philadelphia, PA.

Member, National Steering Committee, Community Care Network Project, Health Research
and Education Trust

Member, Advisory Panel on Cost Effectiveness of Medical Technologies,
Congressional Office of Technology Assessment.

Member, General Council, American Hospital Association.

Member, National Advisory Committee of the Leonard Davis Institute on Health Economics
of the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

Member, General Assembly, Association of American Medical Colleges.

Member, Executive Committee, The Forum of the Delaware Valley Hospital Council.

Member, North Philadelphia Sub-Area Council of Health Systems Agency of Southeastern Pennsylvania.

Member, Board of Directors, Blue Cross of Western Pennsylvania.

Member, Board of Directors, Integrated Mental Health, Inc., Rochester, NY.

Member, Board of Directors, Group Health Planning, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Member, Board of Directors, Northland Health Group, South Portland, Maine

Member, Board of Directors, the Philadelphia Health Plan

Member, Board of Directors, Association of Areawide Health Planning Agencies.

Member, Council on Blue Cross, Financing and Prepayment, American Hospital Association

Member, Sub-Committee on Community Planning, American Public Health Association.

Member, Health Advisory Committee, Appalachian Regional Commission.

Member, Committee on Racial Discrimination, American Public Health Association.

Member, Health Programs Systems Center Advisory Committee, Indian Health Service.

Member, Advisory Committee on Community Action Studies of the National Commission on
Community Health Services.

Member, Health Advisory Committee, Pittsburgh Public Schools.

Member, Executive Committee, Medical Care Section, Pennsylvania Public Health Association.

Member, Council on Planning, Hospital Association of Pennsylvania.

Member, Initial Review Committee, Division of Regional Medical Programs, N.I.H.

Member, Executive Committee, Hospital Utilization Project of Allegheny County Medical Society
and Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania.

Member, Steering Committee and Advisory Committee, Western Pennsylvania Regional Medical Program.

Member, Committee on Insurance, PA Mental Health Association.

Member, Steering Committee of the Western Pennsylvania Comprehensive Health Planning Group.

Member, Sub-Committee on Epidemiological Uses of Hospital Data, National Committee on Vital Statistics.

Member, Panel of Advisors, National Center for Health Statistics.

Member, Health Committee, Urban League of Pittsburgh, Inc.

, Committee on Development, PA Mental Health Association.

Member, Task Force on Health Planning, Association of University Programs in Health Administration.

Member, HMO Management Council of the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation.

Public Representative, Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania.

American Hospital Association (Life Member, 1979 and Honorary Member, 1988)

Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy

American Public Health Association (Fellow)

American College of Healthcare Executives

Forum for Healthcare Planning (Emeritus Director)

International Federation of Voluntary Health Service Funds

Hospital Association of Pennsylvania

Carnegie-Mellon University, University of Chicago, Columbia University, Cornell University, Duke University, University of Illinois, George Washington University, Harvard University, University of Hawaii, University of Iowa, Iowa State University, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, New York University, University of North Carolina, Northwestern University, Ohio State University, University of 6 Oklahoma, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, Princeton University, Rush University, Rutgers University, University of Leuvan, University of New South Wales.

Annual Meetings, Institutes, Conferences of the American Hospital Association, American Public Health Association, American Statistical Association, American Medical Association, Pennsylvania Medical Society, Hospital Association of Pennsylvania, American College of Hospital Executives, Blue Cross
and Blue Shield Association, American Association of Hospital Planning, Catholic Hospital Association, HEW Secretary’s Conference on Medical Costs, Institute of Medicine, National Health Council, New York Academy of Medicine, Sun Valley Forum on National Health.

The Dean Conley Award of the American College of Hospital Administrators, best paper in
the hospital literature, 1969.

The Trustees Medal, Albert Einstein Medical Center, 1975.

Edwin L. Crosby Fellow to the Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, London, England, 1976.

Corning Award for Exceptional Contributions to Hospital Planning by the Society for
Hospital Planning, 1981.

The William B. Woods Memorial Lecture, Park Ridge Hospital, Rochester, New York, 1981 and 1991

Award of Merit, American Association for Hospital Planning, 1984.

The Michael M. Davis Lecture, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1985.

The C. Rufus Rorem Health Service Award, Chicago, 1985.

Clifford C. Thorne Lecture, State University of New York, Albany, NY, 1986.

Robert Tonks Lecture, Northeast Canadian American Health Council, Portland, Maine 1992.

Distinguished Service Award, Hospital Association of Pennsylvania, 1993.

Distinguished Service Award, Ohio State University, 1995. 7

The Andrew Pattullo Lecture, Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 1996.

Inducted into the Health Care Hall of Fame, 2001

Golden Apple Award for Teaching Excellence, Drexel University School of Public Health, 2002

“Problems of Fiscal Control in Hospital Food Service.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association
August 1953.

with Maryland Y. Pannell, Isidore Altman and Marion E. Altenderfer. Income and Expense Ratios of
General Hospitals, 1951. Public Health Service Publication No. 407. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1954.

Review of Organized Home Medical Care in New York City, by Peter Rogatz, M.D. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Mar. 1957.

with Isidore Altman and Morris London. General Hospitals in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh:
The Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania, 1958.

Review of An Examination of the Concept of Medical Indigence, by Odin W. Anderson.
Hospitals 1 June 1958.

What Hospitals can do about the Underfinancing of Hospital Service. Hospitals. (Oct. 1958);
also in Trustee. (Nov. 1958) [HTML] [PDF]

with Mary B. Janavitz. “Psychiatric Cases Need Special Service, Not Special Facilities.”
The Modern Hospital Mar. 1959.

“Indigent Care.” Hospitals 16 Apr. 1959.

“Blue Cross and the Hospitals: A Summary of Research Findings” Afterwards. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1959.

“How Hospitals Can Strengthen Blue Cross.” The Modern Hospital Feb. 1960.

“A Case History in Coordinated Hospital Planning.” Hospital Forum May 1960.

“An Approach To Coordinated Hospital Planning.” Hospital Forum Jan. 1961

with Morris London. “Are We Building Too Many Hospital Beds?” The Modern Hospital Jan. 1961.

with Morris London. “Small Specialized Bed Units Lower Occupancy.” The Modern Hospital May 1961.

with Morris London. “How Weekends and Holidays Affect Occupancy.” The Modern Hospital Aug. 1961.

with Mrs. G.H. Enzian and Mrs. D.A. Irwin. “A Profile of Hospital Auxiliaries.” Trustee Dec. 1961.

Review of Doctors, Patients and Health Insurance, by Herman M. Somers and Anne R. Somers.
Hospitals 16 Dec. 1961.

“Developing Home Care in Pennsylvania.” Planning: Evolution and Development. Iowa City:
University of Iowa, 1968.

Review of Family Spending Patterns and Health Care, by H. Ashley Weeks. Hospitals 1 Mar. 1962.

What Utilization Committees Taught Us. The Modern Hospital. (Feb. 1963)

“Regional Hospital Planning – Under Voluntary or Governmental Auspices?”
Hospital Forum June 1963.

with Tekolste, Elton. “How Should Blue Cross Reimburse Hospitals?” The Modern Hospital July 1963;
also published as “Hospital Payments: the Case for Costs.” Blue Cross Association Exchange
September 1963.

“Community-wide Planning for Children’s Hospital Service in a Metropolitan Area.”
Pediatrics Dec. 1963.

“The Community’s Concern in Planning For Health Services.” Hospital Progress Jan. 1964.

with I. Oscar Weissman, M.D. “Is Separation of OB Cases Necessary?” The Modern Hospital Jan. 1964.

“Hospital Planning in Allegheny County.” Group Practice June 1964.

Review of Health Care Issues of the 1960s, by Group Health Insurance, Inc. Hospitals 16 Aug. 1964.

“The Hospital Planning Process and the Community.” Proceedings of the First National Conference on
Areawide Planning. Chicago: Department of Hospitals and Medical Facilities, AMA, 1964.

with Rorem, C. Rufus. The Organization of Medical and Health Services. D. Public Policy and Financing for Health Services. Medical Education and Practice: Relationships and Responsibilities in a Changing Society. n.p.: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1965; and Journal of Medical Education Jan. 1965.

“The Proper Intermediary.” Blue Cross News July 1965.

with Thomas E. Callahan. “Hospitals and Schools Unite in Manpower Training Programs.”
Hospitals 1 July 1965.

with Thomas M. Tierney. “Could Capitation Ease Blue Cross Ills?” The Modern Hospital Aug. 1965.

“Hospital Capital Funds: Changing Needs and Sources.” Hospitals 16 Aug. 1965.

“Community Facilities and Mental Health.” Hospital Progress Dec. 1965.

“Implications to Hospital Planning.”
“Multiple Hospital Units Under Single Management.”
Proceedings of the National Health Forum on Hospital and Health Affairs. Durham: Duke University.

Determining Community Health Service Needs. The Pennsylvania Medical Journal Feb. 1966.

“The Coming Impact of Medicare – A Symposium.” Hospitals 16 Mar. 1966; and Trustee May 1966.

“Questions and Answers About Areawide Health Facility Planning.” Bulletin of Allegheny County Medical Society 23 Apr. and 14 May 1966.

“An Outline of the Utilization Review System.” Inquiry May 1966.

“Health Service Needs in Allegheny County.” Planning: Evolution and Development. Iowa City:
The University of Iowa, 1968.

Professional Education for Tomorrow’s Hospital Administrators as viewed by a Hospital Planner.
Hospital Administration. (Summer 1966)

Letter. “Hits High-Cost Forecast.” The Modern Hospital Nov. 1966.

“Areawide Planning for Emergency Services.” Proceedings of the First National Congress on the Socio-Economics of Health Care of the American Medical Association. Chicago: AMA, 1967; and Bulletin of Allegheny County Medical Society 25 Feb. 1967.

“Long-Range Planning by the Individual Hospital, Parts I and II.” Michigan Hospitals Jan. and May 1967.

“Planning for Health.” Report of the 1967 National Health Forum. New York: National Health Council, 1967.

“Depreciation As a Source of Hospital Capital Financing.” Proceedings of the National Forum on Hospital
and Health Affairs. Durham: Duke University, 1967.

“A Community Approach to the Organization of Care.” Proceedings of the National Conference on Medical Costs, 1967; also as “Suppose You Were Placed in Charge.” Medical Economics 13 Nov. 1967.

“Health Planning.” Medical Care May-June 1967; and in The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly Jan. 1968.

“A Practical Approach to Areawide Hospital Planning.” Hospital Administration in Canada 1 July 1967.

“The Inherent Needs in Improving Emergency Medical Services.” Proceedings of the American Medica

Association’s Conference on Emergency Medical Services. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1967.

“Sources of Capital Investment in Health Care Facilities.” Costs of Health Care Facilities.
Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1968.

“Sigmond Recommends Expanded Role for Philanthropy in Hospital Financing.”
Blue Cross News Jan.-Feb. 1968.

“Hospital Effectiveness: A Complex Concept Promises Concrete Results.” Hospitals 1 Aug. 1968.

“Capitation as a Method of Reimbursement to Hospitals in a Multihospital Area.” Reimbursement Incentives for Hospital and Medical Care. Research Report No. 26. Office of Research and Statistics, Social Security Administration. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1968.

Planning: Evolution and Development. Iowa City: The University of Iowa, 1968.

“The Notion of Hospital Incentives.” Hospital Progress Jan. 1969; and in Challenging the Profession. Chicago: Pluribus Press, Inc., 1983; and in Health Services Management Readings and Commentary.
First ed. Ann Arbor: Health Administration Press, 1978.

Changing Hospital Goals. Journal of the Albert Einstein Medical Center. (Spring 1969)
“Process or Outcome Planning – Which Concept Will Dominate?” Hospital Topics June 1969.

with Frank Reiner and Steven Sieverts. Areawide Association Stimulates Individual Hospital to Plan Ahead. Trustee Aug. 1969.

The Health Care Crisis and the Planning Process” in Collected Papers from The 1969 Hospital Medical
Staff Conference. University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1970.

For the Trustee, Deepening Responsibilities.” Hospitals 1 Jan. 1970.

Use of Community Resources. Hospitals 16 Apr. 1970; also as Examining the Auxiliary’s Role in an Era
of Social Change. The Volunteer Leader Apr. 1970.

with Steven Sieverts. “On the Question of Mergers.” Medical Care July-Aug. 1970.

Summary of Workshop Discussion on “The Consumer” in National  Health Insurance, Proceedings of the Conference on National  Health Insurance by Robert D. Eilers and Sue S. Moyerman. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc. 1971.

“Hospital Discharge Abstract Systems and Institutional Planning.” Supplement to Medical Care 1971.

“Conversations.” Hospital Efficiency Through Economies of Scale. Number Seven of a Series. Philadelphia: ARA  Services, 1971.

“The View of the Hospital Administrator.” Proceedings of the Symposium on Future Patterns in Health Care Delivery. Philadelphia: The Institute of Electrical/Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1972.

“Delivery Systems – The Institutional Component.” Hospital Progress Dec. 1972; also published as New Delivery Systems: Can Hospitals Afford to Play a Passive Role? Trustee Mar. 1973; and The Hospital Medical Staff Mar. 1973.

“Medical Care in the United States: A Review of Problems and Progress”
Acta Hospitalia Lente 1974.

“Conversations.” Redefining the Role of the Hospital Trustee. Number Fourteen in a Series. Philadelphia:
ARA Services, 1974.

with Kinser, T. The Hospital – Blue Cross Plan Relationship. Blue Cross Association. (Sept. 1976)

“Remarks on the Hospital-Blue Cross Plan Relationship” Proceedings of the 1976 Provider Relations Forum Chicago: Blue Cross Association, 1976.

What Changes in Third Party Reimbursement Can Encourage Movement Towards More Cost Effective Systems? Linking Health Planning and Regulation to Increase Cost Effectiveness. Harvard University Center for Community Health and Medical Care. Report Series R58-3, Dec. 1977.

“The Linkage Between Health Policy Making and Planning.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine Jan. 1978.

“The Role of the Payor in Cost Containment.” Health Care in the American Economy: Issues and Forecasts. Chicago: Health Services Foundation, 1978.

“Can Restructuring Health Care Financing Hold Down Costs?” Trustee Sep. 1978.

“The Issues Facing Multihospital Systems.” Multi-Institutional Hospital Systems. Chicago: The Hospital Research and Educational Trust of the American Hospital Association and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 1979.

An Open-Minded approach to Hospital Closure. The Changing Role of the Hospital:
Options for the Future. American Hospital Association. (No.1186 1980)

Why neither Competition nor Regulation is the Whole Answer. Trustee. (May 1980)

Is There Anything Unique About Planning by Hospitals as Public Service Organizations? Report of the Conference on the Future of Health Planning. Catalog No. 1022. Chicago: American Hospital Association,
Nov. 1980.

“Can New Capitation Experiment Cut Hospital Costs?” Health Finance Management Dec. 1980.

“Can New Capitation Experiment Cut Hospital Costs?” an interview by Walter J. Unger Hospital Financial Management Dec 1980.

“Cooperation, Competition, Regulation: Health Care System’s Balancing Act.” Hospital Progress Mar. 1981; also in Competition, Cooperation and Regulation: the Quest for Excellence in Health Care. Ann Arbor:
AUPHA Press, 1981.

“Hospital Planning Should Provide for Family Role in Care.” Hospitals 16 June 1981.

“Commentary on Measuring Community Hospital Services in Michigan.”
Health Services Research Summer 1981.

Community Forces as Regulators. “The New Regulators” Report of the Ross Health Administration Forum. Ross Laboratories. (1981)

“Old and New Roles For the Community Hospital.” The William B. Woods Memorial Lecture. Rochester: Rochester Area 14 Hospitals Corp., 1981.

“Appropriateness Review: Who Is Affected?” Appropriateness Review of Health Care Services. Publication No. 1527. Chicago: American Hospital Association, 1981.

“Community Planning Success Rests on New Definition of Trustee Leadership.”
Trustee Dec. 1981.

“Group Payment for Health Care – Comments on Part 2.” A Quest For Certainty by C. Rufus Rorem.
Ann Arbor: Health Administration Press, 1982.

“Coalitions.” SMS Impact Winter, 1983.

“Free Care – Who Pays?” Proceedings of the Trustee Institute of the Council on Continuing Education. Alexandria: National Association of Children’s Hospital and Related Institutions, Inc. (NACHRI), 1983.

Selection, Organization and Evaluation of the Hospital’s Leadership.
Proceedings of the Trustee Institute of the Council on Continuing Education. (NACHRI), 1983.

“Robert M. Sigmond – In First Person: An Oral History.” Hospital Administration Oral History Collection. Edited by Lewis E. Weeks. Chicago: American Hospital Association and Hospital Research and Education Trust, 1983.

“Social Implications of New Business Strategies for Health Care Corporations.” “Putting the Business Suit on Health Care.” Proceedings of the Third Annual Invitational Seminar on Hospital/Health/Affairs. Chicago: Department for Health Systems Management, Center for Health Management Studies, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center, 1984.

A Community Perspective on Hospital Ownership. Frontiers of Health Service Management (Sept. 1984); also in Health Services Management readings and Commentary: Third Edition. (1987)

Re-Examining the role of the Community Hospital in a Competitive Environment.
The Michael M. Davis Lecture. University of Chicago. (1985) [PDF]

“Selective Contracting and the Community Hospital.” Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual George Bugbee Symposium on Hospital Affairs. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985.

Twentieth Anniversary of Medicare and Medicaid: Memories of Great Ideas and Missed Opportunities.
Hospital Progress July-Aug. 1985.

C. Rufus Rorem Health Service Award Acceptance Speech. Chicago: Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, 1985.

“On Reshaping the Marketplace.” Health Progress Dec. 1986.

“We Are All Medically Indigent at Some Spend-down Level.” Care of the Medically Indigent, by Emily Friedman. Chicago: The American Hospital Association, 1986.

Testimony to Blue Ribbon Panel on Physician Involvement in Governance and Management. Final Report, Volume 2. Sisters of Mercy Health Corporation. Farmington Hills, MI. March, 1987.

“As I See It.” Best Carolinas Medicine June 1987.

“Remarks at Annual Meeting of the Atlanta Healthcare Alliance.” Alliance News Jan.-Mar. 1988.

Review of Medical Care Medical Costs: The Search For a Health Insurance Policy, by Rashi Fein, Ph.D.
The Journal of Health Administration Education Winter 1988.

Review of Hospital Structure and Performance, by Ann Barry Flood and W. Richard Scott. Hospital Progress June 1988.

“New Guidance on Hospital Ethics Policy.” Trustee Sep. 1988.

“The Perspective of Community Health Planning.” Preferential Option for the Poor, Vol. 2 Farmington Hills, MI: Mercy Health Services, 1988.

“C. Rufus Rorem Obituary.” Journal of the American Medical Association 19 Nov. 1988.

Review of The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System, by Charles E. Rosenberg. Health Progress Mar. 1989.

with J. David Seay. Community Benefit Standards for Hospitals: Perceptions and Performance. The Future of Tax-Exempt Status For Hospitals. Frontiers of Health Services Management Spring 1989. Also as Hospital Governance and Community Benefit Standards. in Trustee Dec. 1989.

“The Future of Community Benefit Standards for Hospitals.” Proceedings of the Thirty-first Annual George Bugbee Symposium on Hospital Affairs. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1989.

“A Catalyst for Change.” Health Progress Dec. 1989.

Hospital Governance and Healthcare Reform, Parts I and II, The Governance One Hundred, Winter, 1991 and Spring, 1992, La’Jolla, CA.

Review of Marketplace Medicine: The Rise of the For-Profit Hospital Chains, by David Lindorff. Health Progress Jan-Feb 1993.

Beyond the Body Repair Shop: Ethical Problems and Prospects for Hospitals as Social Servants in Bioethics and Health Care Reform Among the States, University of Virginia, l992.

Review of Ray E. Brown: Lectures, Messages and Memoirs edited by Blanks, Corley and Smith.
Hospitals & Health Services Administration, Spring, 1992.

From Charity Care to Community Benefit, Guest Editorial. Hospitals & Health Services Administration.(Summer 1994)

with Seay, D. J. In Health Care Reform, Who Cares for the Community? Journal of Health Administration Education. (Summer 1994)

with Anthony R. Kovner, Community Care Networks and Health Care Reform: An Interview with Robert Sigmond The Journal of Health Administration Education, Summer 1994.

Capitation: Its older than you think. Trustee. (Aug. 1994)

“Who Gets It?” Hospitals and Health Networks August 15, 1994.

Back to the Future: Partnerships and Coordination for Community Health. Frontiers of Health Services Management. (Summer 1995)

“Why Aren’t CEO Salaries Coming Down?” Trustee October 1995.

Learning from the Ghost of Healthcare Past: Doing more with less through Coordination and Collaboration. Healthcare Forum Journal. (Nov/Dec. 1995)

Community Assessment or Action? From Conflict to Synergy. Health Progress. (Mar-Apr. 1996)

Interviews: Defining Community; Leadership and Followership; Better Health for Less Money in Apple 2: A Guide for Implementing Community Health Improvement Programs, Institute for Healthy Communities,
Harrisburg, PA. 1997

The 1996 Pattullo Lecture. Journal of Health Administration Education. (Winter 1997)

July/Aug 1997: Making a Real Difference: Beyond Community Service to Community Benefit.

May/June 1998: Beyond Good Intentions: Accountability for Community Benefit.

Sept/Oct 1998: Community Benefits are Key: A Common Link for Effective Integration.

Nov/Dec 1998: Community Benefit Planning: The Missing Link in Health Models.

Jan/Feb 1999: A Community Approach to Managing Uncompensated Care.

Mar/Apr 1999: Taking Charge of Uncompensated Care, Part II.

May/June 1999: Managing the Uncompensated Care Problem, Part III.

July/Aug 1999: Where does a Community Benefits Program Fit?

Sept/Oct 1999: The Community Benefit Role of the Collections Department.

Nov/Dec 1999: Community Benefits and the Bottom Line.

Jan/Feb 2000: Linking Community Benefits and Patient Care.

Mar/Apr 2000: Do your Community Benefits have any impact?

May/June 2000: Do your Community Benefits have any impact? Part 2.

July/Aug 2000: Community Benefits Impact, Part 3.

Sept/Oct 2000: Community Benefits and Diversity, Part I.

Nov/Dec 2000: Community Benefits, Outcomes and Inputs.

with Baskin, K. Notes on a Complexity Primer for Practical Managers. Organizations and People.
(Feb. 2001)

May/June 2001: Remaking Health Care in America Michigan Health & Hospitals.

Pennsylvania Election Statistics, 1920-1940 (with H.F. Alderfer, Ph.D.) a Pennsylvania State College Monograph, 1942.

Methods of Making Experimental Inferences, second revised edition, published by the Frankford Arsenal, U.S. War Department, 1945.